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A product sells when it is truthfully promoted as fairly priced, convenient to buy, and of course, something everyone wants. The target market is located in the middle because each aspect of a sale I mentioned above holds customer value. Together, these “4 P's of Marketing,” win customers over the competition when utilized. A customer goes to a car dealership for many reasons over a private seller. A dealership has a reputation promoted through local media and now social websites. A car lot gives the customer the ability to choose the right product at the right price, and of course, at the right place.. A good balance between the “4 P’s of Marketing” time and time again, brings return customers time and time again. SWOT Analysis will show the strengths and weaknesses such as location and price range of the vehicles on hand to determine the target market. With the correct variables from the marketing mix, customers can be recognized and drawn in. The final sale relies on a personal connection between sales person and customer.


When it comes to the 4 P’s the person has to be in the middle. The model is showing all the pieces that need to be put into place in order for marketing plan to actually work. Each P needs to be right to fit the person of the target market. There isn’t just one “P” that stands out from the rest. For example if you have the right price, but you don’t promote the product well, the marketing plan will most likely fail. So the only place that person would fit in the model would be in the middle, because all of the P’s need to be a part of the person or target market. The SWOT analysis is also important because it will help you make a decision for the four P’s due to the different strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of that market. Putting all of these strategies together will give the marketing plan the best result.


The target customer is placed in the middle of the Four P's because this strategy is showing that all of these variables are necessary to effectively target a customer. Customers don't just become familiar with a product and buy it just out of curiosity or luck. They are drawn into the product from the effective use of these four variables. The Four P's overlap one another because they all help one another in successfully marketing to a target market. Without one of the Four P's, the target customer can't be marketed to in the most efficient way.
Also, the Four P's allow for differentiation within not only a company, but a whole industry. By having the best product, a realistic price, very good promotions for that product, and the most effective place to sell that product, a company can have a competitive advantage over others and can become very successful.
Personally, when I bought my new PS3 recently, the four P's were in full effect on me as the target customer. The product was promoted all over the place and everyone seemed to know about it. As a college student tight with money, they knew that I would be even more interested if they cut me a deal on the price. Everything about the product seemed convincing to me and I didn't really see a reason why I shouldn't buy it.


The Four Ps of marketing are designed to help companies reach their target market with key elements central to well planned marketing. The reason that all of the Four Ps over lap is that they all affect one another as well as the target market. An example of the Ps overlapping is that when a consumer feels they purchased your product for a good price they will be more likely to promote your product and the value it is to their friends, thus Price affects Promotion.

Consumers are visual and like convenience when purchasing products. Consumers are often willing to pay more for a product with more features or with a more stylish design. An example of good use of the Four Ps in marketing would be Starbucks Coffee. It has been promoted as being cool to have Starbucks Coffee vs. similar coffee shops coffee, lending Starbucks strength, and with a Starbucks on almost every corner, they have the opportunity to be the convenience consumers desire. Consumers happily pay more to have a cup of coffee with the logo of Starbucks on the side because of Starbucks promotion and product design and placement.


The target customer is placed in the center of the four P’s because marketers use all of P’s as tools to reach a customer who would be able to afford their product. The four P’s overlap each other because each strategy covers a variety of consumers and some of those consumers may be more susceptible to marketing campaigns that are directed towards a place and a product rather than a price or promotion. In my experience Taco Bell’s $2 meal deal was targeted very well at people in my situation (poor college kid, with a craving for off campus food), because of this I believe that Taco Bell’s target market was the 20-something kid with just a few dollars to spare. With a marketing concept focusing on their product of quasi-Mexican food, in addition to their promotions through T.V. ads, their locations relatively close to many college campuses and a low price of $2. Taco Bell’s marketing strategy seemed to follow the Four P’s closely and with a seemingly successful campaign the 2 dollar meal deals have now become a part of their regular menu. Thank you Taco Bell!


The target customer is obviously placed in the middle of the four P's to show that if one of the P's is missing or lacking then your product will not be competitive. Something I believe is very important is differentiation which means that the marketing mix is distinct from and better than what is available from a competitor. So not only does a company need to have all four P's, but they need to do them better than their competitors. Successful companies are successful for a reason. Lets take Apple, they do a good job with price, promotion and place, but Apple's key to success is that their products are so innovative and high quality.


The purpose of many businesses is to make a profit. Without the customer that uses their product or service, it would be impossible for a company to make any sort of profit. With the use of a marketing strategy, the customer becomes the center of attention. Once the target market is identified, it is much easier to relate that market to the "Four P's". These Four P's all overlap each other. This is because each of the p's rely on each other, when one changes it affects all of the other P's. For, example, when a product has changed the way it is made this affects the price and the way it is promoted, this then could change the way that it is shipped.

I am the type of shopper that always looks for a deal. This is made much easier by stores like Target and Walmart. I feel that Target does a great job of getting a great product to the target market utilizing the Four P's. The target market of the Target store would be people in search of a good deal with quality products. The product that Target sells is of great quality and there is a large variety of options available, from clothes to cosmetics. Pricing is an area in which Target excels. All of the pricing is very reasonable. With place, there are a number of convenient locations across the country. The store is also available online. Promotions is another area in which Target is among the best compared to its competitors. Target has many commercials that catch people's attentions, they also have special seasonal sales that attract many customers.


Without a target market, a company would fail. The success of a company thrives upon the connectivity of the Four P's, with the target market at its nucleus. With one of the Four P's missing, a company's marketing strategy would become weaker. The company's product would not be able to reach its full success potential. Most people shop according to where they live, placing your product according to where a large demographic of your target market lives is crucial to the success of the product. Just as crucial are the three other P's. If a product is not priced correctly for its market, people may pass it up thinking it is a cheap product if the price is too low. If it is too high they will not be able to afford it. Promotions of a product can get a consumers attention and show its differentiation from other products.

I am the type of person that considers each of the Four P's when I go shopping. Charlotte Russe does a great job hitting all of them in their marketing strategy. They have a very specialized marketing mix and target market. They target young women by showing trendy promotions and keeping a unique style of women's clothes. They are found online and located in city areas that have large demographics of young women. They keep decent prices and offer discounts to students with I.D.'s. They do a great job of attracting their target market by utilizing all of the Four P's.


In order to become a productive firm, marketers must obtain a strategy that would ensure that they’re going to be a profitable long-term investment. Overall, the objective of a marketer’s job is to satisfy a group of consumers who will buy their product, which entails profit. In order to appeal to the customers and organize how to go about with the marketing mix, marketers must rely on the 4 P’s. The 4 P’s coexist with one another because they are crucial variables that must all be looked at as a whole before it can satisfy the target. The organization of it all relies on the right product, then taking that product and figuring where, when and how it will reach to the customer. Then once a product is distributed, marketers must figure out how customers will then acquire knowledge about it (ads and suitable sales rep). Finally, firms must be currently aware of price mark ups and discounted sales so that customers feel they are paying the right amount for the product offered to them. This certain flow of decisions is arranged around the target market for the sole purpose of satisfying them. A personal example that would be relevant to this is the time I had to go buy boots. There was a variety of different boots with a wide range in price. Then when it came down to it, I wanted a pair that was durable, but still stylish and comfortable. At the time, Northface came out with a line of boots that fitted my criteria. They were even accessible at one of the hip shoe stores close by to me, so that was how I came about it. What made me even fonder of the boots were that they were on sale at the time I needed them. The boots have met and exceeded my expectations. As a consequence of my experience, I will shop for Northface products again.


The target customer is placed at the center of the Four Ps (product, promotion, place, price) for many reasons; however, profit is most likely the main motivator. The marketing concept implies that "the idea that an organization aims all of its efforts at satisfying its customers at a profit". The target customer in this situation is the person that the company is trying to sell their product to. If they can have the right mix of the Four Ps that makes the customer want to buy that product, profit will emerge.

Every company and every product must be marketed differently. The way that a company deals with the Four Ps depends on their target market. They must find the right way to set each of the Four Ps in order to appeal to their target market.


The target customer is the very center of Product, Placement, Promotion, and Price. You have to consider every aspect of the four P's in your marketing mix. To process marketing management you have to know your product and it's features and the placement as to which market you are trying to reach. This allows you to promote or advertise your product to that market after you know the price to allow for a profit. When I used to work for Best Buy I knew that this mix was important. Working in the media section with all of the DVD's and CD's taught me that with the right mix of the four P's that the product will almost sell it self. We had management that was always pushing for us to approach people to help make sales. This strategy worked in nearly ever other department except for media. Our job as the staff in media was to make sure that everything was stocked, organized, and priced correctly. This was a full time job and even though we were asked to push more sales, our numbers would go down if we diverged from this path. Helping the customer when they asked for help was priority, the combination of the four P's were the learned priority after that.


The target customer is placed in the center of the Four P's in the diagram because the customer is the center focus of the marketing mix. Each of the Four P's (product, price, place, and promotion) is designed around what the target customer wants and needs. As explained in our book, we have to remember though that the customer is not part of the marketing mix. The customer is the "focus" or "target" of these four marketing variables. The Four P's overlap each other because each of the Four P's contribute to the success of the marketing mix and what needs to be accomplished. You generally cannot have one without the other. I recently just bought a new phone and all Four P's were used to convince me that this was a good purchase to make. I was targeted as a college student and a business woman who needs to have the internet on a phone to keep in contact with individuals. I needed to find a phone that was not too costly, and I was given a rebate promotion. I also used differentiation in my decision of purchasing the phone I did because I personally think that this certain cellular phone provider's marketing mix is better than other competitors.


Customer is key. You can have an incredible product, the price could be right, have it be well promoted, and in the right place -- but with each of these questions you need to analyze the "for who" of it all. Every time I watch television I see "Life Alert" commercials. These elderly-care necklaces are perfectly logical, well priced, and promoted;however, I have absolutely no interest in them. I'm not their target market. This proves how important it is to know your customer, because each of the four Ps are designed to attract that target group. According to the textbook, each P is equally important because a failure in one of the four results in an overall failure. An important term from the textbook that really gets to the heart of this is "competitive advantage." Gaining a competitive advantage is what pushes companies to develop more detailed and accurate marketing mix. A company needs to analyze their marketing strategy based on the SWOT system in order to stay competitive.


Just as the book states “All four P’s are needed in a marketing mix.” Each P contributes to the customer’s satisfaction and experience. The four P’s each represent different characteristics specifically designed around the customers that are needed to get and retain them; that is why the target market is placed in the middle of the four P’s. If a company only had one or two of the P’s it would not be successful at gaining a target market. Most customers care about more than just the price or just the product; this is why each of the P’s need to complement each other. When I purchased a Toyota Camry the four P’s were definitely important in the purchase. The main reasons I bought the vehicle was because of the competitive price, good quality (product), service levels (place) and the kindness of the salespeople (promotion). To me, Toyota had the best differentiation for my budget. Although the Camry’s did have some unfavorable internal factors, I felt the internal favorable factors outweighed them.


The customer is at the center of the 4 P's because they are the focus. The company is using the P's to market to the customers (usually a specific market). The P's overlap each other because they all correlate to the customer and affect each other. All 4 P's are drivers to the customers decision to purchase/not purchase the product or service.

I recently just bought a new car, and in terms of differentiation, the type I bought exceeded its competitors on miles/gallon and price. Using the 4 P's to explain: the product was of exceptional quality and offered a warranty. The place was conveniently located close to my house. The price was unbeatable and flexible, they even gave a discount. Lastly, the promotion was the salesperson giving all the various benefits to the car I was buying.


The customer is placed in the middle because the customer is the target of each of the marketing efforts and strategies. The four P's overlap because marketing is the whole picture, just not one specific piece of the puzzle that attracts the customer. The four P's influenced me when buying my Macbook computer. The product was well reviewed and had excellent software that was targeted for a college student. I liked how Apple stores were located across the state in case there was a problem or issue that I had and it needed to be taken in, instead of mailed away. The promotion of friendly, helpful sales people and the free iTouch attracted me to the product as well. Although the price was high, they offered student discounts. The marketing strategy differentiation appealed to me because the product was a better purchase because of the place and promotion of a free iTouch that I recieved.


The target customer is placed in the center of the the 4 P's to show that it does not take just one but all for the the P's price, promotion, place and product to target specific customers. The 4 P's over lap each other because they they each have to work together to target a specific audience. Say a company is trying to target teens to wear their new brand of stained jeans. They have to target that specific age group. First the product itself has to be designed for the specific age, the price has to be in their price range, the promotion has to be a good design and the place, such as a mall, where they are selling them. They have to all work together to make the marketing mix work together. Personally, I think that the 4 P's work together in helping me decide what store that I am going to shop at, say between Meijer and Walmart. I choose Meijer because I do not like the way that Walmart treats their employees and it's not as easily located. I think that Meijer does a better job at having that competitive advantage than Walmart does. I also believe that they meet my 4 P's better. The marketing strategy is different than the S.W.O.T Analysis because the strengths and weaknesses are used to develop the 4 Ps. I shopped at Meijer and won't even step foot into a Walmart now. It's against my will if I have to go into one, and when I do I won't even buy anything, because it goes against what I believe in as a marketer.


I think the "P" they used the most to pursue me was the price. I told them right from the beginning the product had me sold but I was afraid it was too expensive. They told me all about various promotions they had related to the phone itself, the price related to the service plan I was on, what would happened if I changed plans, and what the price was related to if I waited for an upgrade. After I realized what a deal they were giving me, I bought the phone.

Dr. William J. Ward aka DR4WARD

Several comments and examples have mentioned that price influences purchase decisions.

The examples point out that college students with limited spending budgets can be very price conscious.

At the same time, students, and many others, are willing to spend more on Apple brand products when other product brand options with similar features are available at a lower cost.

Why are customers willing to spend more on a product or brand when there is a lower cost alternative available? How do the Four P's and the marketing concept explain this? Any personal examples where you were willing to spend more on a product or brand?


The target customer is in the middle of the four P’s thus showing that every single P is important within a marketing strategy. The marketing management process incorporates all of the four P's, and in order to succeed all four must be utilized. Without looking at the product, you can't set an accurate price, and the place is extremely important to where you promote. A personal experience that comes to mind is when I worked this summer in the Admissions Office of Grand Valley State University. Grand Valley works to sell themselves in every aspect of the 4 P’s. They utilize how great the school is as the product. They promote to people all around the country. Not only is the physical place that Grand Valley is located a plus, but where they promote is also important. And the University promotes because without good promotion they wouldn’t exist. Grand Valley knows the external factors of the school that are favorable and turns them into opportunities which in turn becomes future students. The University also works to differentiate itself from others by making their product better than the rest. They do a good job, and clearly sold me!


The target customer is the center of the diagram, because the allocation of the Four P’s must relate to the target market. Knowing your target market is important because it helps to develop a marketing mix that satisfies customer specific needs better than your competitors. Each “P” contributes to the marketing strategy as a whole and each is dependent upon each other. Customers interact daily with product, price, place, and promotion. The strategy that relates the Four P's to their target market the best will be most successful. Through the years McDonald’s has continued to update their marketing strategy. They know their market and continue to seek opportunities in other markets. For example, McCafe in most cases is comparable to Starbucks. In this example they were able to steal part of Starbuck’s market by adding a premium coffee selection to their menu. In terms of threats from direct competition, McDonald's was able to see where their competitors like Burger King and Wendy’s were weak and were able to differentiate themselves by price and product. While price wars are competitions that firms are eager to avoid, McDonald's was among the first to add a “Dollar Menu” during an economic down turn. Prices influence purchase decisions.


The target customer is placed in the center because in the process of defining the target market, you have to look at all four P’s. More specifically, the customer is placed in the middle because if the customer doesn’t fall under all P’s, like price for example, then the individual could simply choose another product. An example for me from real life is a snowboard. When I am interested in a new board, there are so many things I look at. I mostly look at where I can buy it (place), how well the board is made and with back up services (product involving warranties), and what the company stands for (promotion). I found it interesting that you bring up the SWOT Analysis because this is something I’ve never heard of but was just brought up in one of my other classes today. A SWOT Analysis and marketing strategies definitely all help define who their customers are. In our world today, all America wants is customization. If a product/service is able to customize (talking about differentiation as well), then it expands the target customer even more!

Dr. William J. Ward aka DR4WARD

I like your Madden Football video game example, but you mainly covered variables from promotion in your explanation. Will you please use the marketing mix variables listed under "Place" to better explain the place of Madden Football? The promotion creates awareness, but where is the place the product is found? How does it get from manufacturer to consumer?
Thank you.


The target customer must be in the middle of the four P’s because that is who the company is focusing all of their attention on. All of the four P’s have to do with one thing and that is trying to get the customer to buy their product or use their service. Companies use something called a SWOT Analysis - an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats - to determine new areas and ideas to pursue. They use a SWOT Analysis to help them decide the best way to use all four P’s in a way so the customer will buy their product or service. The four P’s overlap because they have to. Companies need to use all of the P’s to differentiate their product. An example of the overlap is how promotion and place overlap. An example of this is the sports game Madden Football. This company promotes its game on many different networks, but they tend to advertise them more during sporting events as well as on sports stations like ESPN. This also has to do with the target market which they are focusing on. This target market is young males that are interested in sports.


I think Campus View used the "Market Penetration" marketing opportunity to pursue me as a "customer". The product (the townhomes) already existed and so did the market. In this type of opportunity, the company tries to strengthen its relationship with the customers to insure that they will come back to buy their product in the future. I lived in Campus View last year, and I was pleased enough to decide to live here again. Promotion for Campus View was everywhere on GVSU's campus and the information placed on the internet was very useful and efficient.

Dr. William J. Ward aka DR4WARD

Thanks for the comment.
I like your example of competitive price for similar features being the determining factor for your cell phone purchase.
How does the Four Ps explain why some people would pay more for a phone with similar features?


The costumer needs to be at the center of the four P's for a reason. The costumer has many wants and needs. In order to fulfill all of the costumers wants, the 4 P's must be met. If they are not, the consumer may choose to take their business to another company that can better meet their needs. Product and place are essential to having a costumer choose your product/service. In order to sell your product at it's place, the business must promote the product and give it a competitive price. The reason that the P's overlap is simple. A business can't have a great product and place with an overwelming cost. Focusing on product and place without keeping costs down would turn the costumer away. I also have a cell phone example. When I got my most recent cell phone, the salesman tried to sell me a more expensive phone. I analyzed both phones and came to the conclusion that they basically had the same features, but the one I chose was much cheaper. In this case price was the P that sold me.

Dr. William J. Ward aka DR4WARD

Thanks Leah and Brittany for sharing your comments.

Good examples of why the customer is at the center of the Four Ps and how it has influenced your own experience. Good use of the Four P Variables of the Marketing Mix and the use of differentiation to help support your comments.

Which one of the four Types of Marketing Opportunities do you think the company in your example was using to pursue each of you?


The customer is placed in the center because the customer is the most important aspect of a company's marketing strategy. Their strategy must aim to achieve what the customer wants not only in 1 area but in multiple. This is why the customer is surrounded by the 4 P's in the diagram. In order for a customer to be satisfied, a company needs to compete on not just 1 of the P's, but all four. If the company's marketing mix only focuses on one P, then some customers may buy from another company who better suits their wants and needs. Price, Product, Promotion, and Place were all satisfied for me when I decided to live in Campus View Housing in Allendale. I was in the target market that they were striving to please; they aimed their marketing towards students who go to GVSU because of the proximity to campus and the low monthly rent rates. The townhouse was in a location very close to the college campus which was something I wanted very much in regard to convenience. The product, or townhouse, met my needs when it came to living space and size. The price could not be beat by other off-campus housing, which was a big bonus seeing as I'm in college and short on money. Finally, the promotion used to pull me in was great; they promoted the "Off-Kirk" building which is located in the Campus View complex. Inside there is an exercise room, gym, study area, free tanning, and Wi-Fi internet access. Without all the four P's being satisfies, I probably would not have decided to live in Campus View.


The fact that the target customer is placed in the middle of the four P's shows that it does not just take one, but all four aspects of the P's to successfully target someone. It is important to consider the product, price, place, and promotion when reaching out to a certain audience and going through the company’s marketing management process. All four of these also overlap because in many circumstances they can affect each other, and all four need to be used together to make the marketing mix a success. Personally, I know that when I just bought my new blackberry, all four P's were used to finally convince me to make the purchase. The phone was different than any other one in the store because of all of the features it had to offer, and was targeted directly to me as a busy college student who is constantly on the internet and in contact with friends. The strengths greatly outweighed the weaknesses and the promotions I had seen were very convincing. After they gave me a deal on the price, there was no saying no.

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